In fact, consistent with a 5G Microwave Report, about 38% of all global telecom sites are going to be connected to the remainder of the network via wireless backhaul, by 2025.
With the introduction of latest technologies like Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS), Millimeter Wave (mmWave) frequencies, Massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (mMIMO), and beamforming, wireless backhaul is predicted to be an integral a part of the 5G networks.
While this idea is nothing new, it had been shortcoming in terms of performance compared to the fiber backhauling. However, with these new technologies, fiber is not any longer the foremost technology for backhauling. With the projected densification of networks, wireless backhaul has become mandatory to use.
There are still challenges to be tackled if wireless backhaul is to be used efficiently. Resource allocation, deployment, scheduling, power management and energy efficiency are a number of these problems.
Wireless backhaul also acts as an enabler for brand spanking new technologies and improves a number of the prevailing ones significantly. to call a couple of , rural connectivity, satellite communication, and mobile edge computing are some concepts that wireless backhauling acts as an enabler. Small cell usage with wireless backhaul presents different security challenges. Governing bodies of cellular networks have standardization efforts happening especially for the Integrated Acces-Backhaul (IAB) concept, and this is often briefly mentioned.
Finally, wireless backhaul is additionally projected to be a crucial a part of the beyond 5G networks, and newly developed concepts like cell-free networking, ultra-massive MIMO, and very dense network show this trend also . during this survey, we present the aforementioned issues, challenges, opportunities, and applications of wireless backhaul in 5G, while briefly mentioning concepts associated with wireless backhaul beyond 5G alongside with security and standardization issues.